mikrocontroller.net

Forum: Compiler & IDEs Erste Schritte..und nur Fehler..!


Autor: Nils Balmer (Gast)
Datum:
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Hallo

bin daran in die Microcontrollerprogrammierung einzusteigen.

Ich arbeite mit WinAVR (Notepad 2--> 2.0.5.48) und make in der version
3.80. Als Controller verwende ich einen atmega32.

Den "Code" den ich ausführen möchte seht ihr unten, hab ihn nur
erstellt um zu kontrollieren ob alles klappt, tut es aber leider nicht
.

------------------------------------------------
#include <io.h>
void main(void)
{
  while(1)
  {
  }
}
-------------------------------------------------

..wenn ich make all ausführe kommen folgende Outputs:

-------------------------------------------------
> "make.exe" all
makefile:397: no file name for `-include'

-------- begin --------
avr-gcc (GCC) 3.4.3
Copyright (C) 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.


Linking: main.elf
avr-gcc -mmcu=atmega32 -I. -g -Os -funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields
-fpack-struct -fshort-enums -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -Wa,-adhlns=
-IC:\WinAVR\include -IC:\WinAVR\include\X11 -std=gnu99    --output
main.elf -Wl,--section-start=.text=0x1800 -Wl,-Map=main.map,--cref -lm
C:/WinAVR/bin/../lib/gcc/avr/3.4.3/../../../../avr/lib/avr5/crtm32.o(.in 
it9+0x0):
undefined reference to `main'
make.exe: *** [main.elf] Error 1

> Process Exit Code: 2
--------------------------------------------------------------


Hab gegoogelt und auch hier im Forum gesucht, habe jedoch keine Lösung
gefunden. Wäre für jede Hilfe dankbar.

Danke. Nils

Autor: Werner B. (Gast)
Datum:

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An Dein angehängtes makefile komme ich nicht ran, aber ich tippe Du hast
die Angabe des Quellfiles im makefile vergessen.

etwas in der art

TARGET = main
...
SRC = $(TARGET).c

dann muss Dein c-File aber auch main.c heissen.

Autor: leif (Gast)
Datum:

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Hi Nils,

er findet anscheined die main.elf nicht.

Bei mir beginnt die Ausgabe mit:


-------- begin --------
avr-gcc (GCC) 3.4.3
Copyright (C) 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.


Size before:
2005-09-19_TimerInterrupts.elf  :
section           size      addr
.text              252         0
.data                0   8388704
.bss                 0   8388704
.noinit              0   8388704
.eeprom              0   8454144
.debug_aranges      20         0
.debug_pubnames     56         0
.debug_info        422         0
.debug_abbrev      269         0
.debug_line        328         0
.debug_str         218         0
Total             1565


AVR Memory Usage:

.......

ich habe meine main.c direkt im winAVR Verzeichnis, und binde außerdem
die io.h mit

#include <avr/io.h>

Das funktioniert. Vielleicht ja bei Dir auch.
Viel Erfolg!

Autor: Nils Balmer (Gast)
Datum:

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Danke für die schnellen Antworten!!!

Wenn ich es wie folgt mache:
--------------
SRC = $(TARGET).c
--------------

bekomme ich diese Meldung:
--------------
> "make.exe" all

-------- begin --------
avr-gcc (GCC) 3.4.3
Copyright (C) 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.

make.exe: *** No rule to make target `main.o', needed by `main.elf'.
Stop.

> Process Exit Code: 2
-----------------------



und wenn ich es so lasse:
-----------------------
SRC =
-----------------------
..erhalte ich die im ersten Beitrag gepostete Meldung.




-----------------------------------------------
# Hey Emacs, this is a -*- makefile -*-
#----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
-----
# WinAVR Makefile Template written by Eric B. Weddington, Jörg Wunsch,
et al.
#
# Released to the Public Domain
#
# Additional material for this makefile was written by:
# Peter Fleury
# Tim Henigan
# Colin O'Flynn
# Reiner Patommel
# Markus Pfaff
# Sander Pool
# Frederik Rouleau
#
#----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
-----
# On command line:
#
# make all = Make software.
#
# make clean = Clean out built project files.
#
# make coff = Convert ELF to AVR COFF.
#
# make extcoff = Convert ELF to AVR Extended COFF.
#
# make program = Download the hex file to the device, using avrdude.
#                Please customize the avrdude settings below first!
#
# make debug = Start either simulavr or avarice as specified for
debugging,
#              with avr-gdb or avr-insight as the front end for
debugging.
#
# make filename.s = Just compile filename.c into the assembler code
only.
#
# make filename.i = Create a preprocessed source file for use in
submitting
#                   bug reports to the GCC project.
#
# To rebuild project do "make clean" then "make all".
#----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
-----


# MCU name
MCU = atmega32


# Processor frequency.
#     This will define a symbol, F_CPU, in all source code files equal
to the
#     processor frequency. You can then use this symbol in your source
code to
#     calculate timings. Do NOT tack on a 'UL' at the end, this will
be done
#     automatically to create a 32-bit value in your source code.
F_CPU = 8000000


# Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
FORMAT = ihex


# Target file name (without extension).
TARGET = main


# List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically
generated.)
SRC = $(TARGET).c

# List Assembler source files here.
#     Make them always end in a capital .S.  Files ending in a
lowercase .s
#     will not be considered source files but generated files
(assembler
#     output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make
clean"!
#     Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the
same,
#     it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and gcc itself
does
#     care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.
ASRC =


# Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s].
#     0 = turn off optimization. s = optimize for size.
#     (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc
FAQ.)
OPT = s


# Debugging format.
#     Native formats for AVR-GCC's -g are dwarf-2 [default] or stabs.
#     AVR Studio 4.10 requires dwarf-2.
#     AVR [Extended] COFF format requires stabs, plus an avr-objcopy
run.
DEBUG = dwarf-2


# List any extra directories to look for include files here.
#     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
#     Use forward slashes for directory separators.
#     For a directory that has spaces, enclose it in quotes.
EXTRAINCDIRS =




# Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
#     c89   = "ANSI" C
#     gnu89 = c89 plus GCC extensions
#     c99   = ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
#     gnu99 = c99 plus GCC extensions
CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99


# Place -D or -U options here
CDEFS = -DF_CPU=$(F_CPU)UL


# Place -I options here
CINCS =



#---------------- Compiler Options ----------------
#  -g*:          generate debugging information
#  -O*:          optimization level
#  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
#  -Wall...:     warning level
#  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
CFLAGS = -g$(DEBUG)
CFLAGS += $(CDEFS) $(CINCS)
CFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
CFLAGS += -funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct
-fshort-enums
CFLAGS += -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes
CFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.c=.lst)
CFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
CFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)


#---------------- Assembler Options ----------------
#  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#  -ahlms:    create listing
#  -gstabs:   have the assembler create line number information; note
that
#             for use in COFF files, additional information about
filenames
#             and function names needs to be present in the assembler
source
#             files -- see avr-libc docs [FIXME: not yet described
there]
ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-gstabs


#---------------- Library Options ----------------
# Minimalistic printf version
PRINTF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min

# Floating point printf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt

# If this is left blank, then it will use the Standard printf version.
PRINTF_LIB =
#PRINTF_LIB = $(PRINTF_LIB_MIN)
#PRINTF_LIB = $(PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT)


# Minimalistic scanf version
SCANF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_min

# Floating point + %[ scanf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
SCANF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_flt

# If this is left blank, then it will use the Standard scanf version.
SCANF_LIB =
#SCANF_LIB = $(SCANF_LIB_MIN)
#SCANF_LIB = $(SCANF_LIB_FLOAT)


MATH_LIB = -lm



#---------------- External Memory Options ----------------

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# used for variables (.data/.bss) and heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,-Tdata=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# only used for heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS =
-Wl,--defsym=__heap_start=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

EXTMEMOPTS =



#---------------- Linker Options ----------------
#  -Wl,...:     tell GCC to pass this to linker.
#    -Map:      create map file
#    --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
LDFLAGS += $(EXTMEMOPTS)
LDFLAGS += $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)



#---------------- Programming Options (avrdude) ----------------

# Programming hardware: alf avr910 avrisp bascom bsd
# dt006 pavr picoweb pony-stk200 sp12 stk200 stk500
#
# Type: avrdude -c ?
# to get a full listing.
#
AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = stk200

# com1 = serial port. Use lpt1 to connect to parallel port.
AVRDUDE_PORT = lpt1

AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U flash:w:$(TARGET).hex
#AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM = -U eeprom:w:$(TARGET).eep


# Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
# Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
# see avrdude manual.
#AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER = -y

# Uncomment the following if you do not wish a verification to be
# performed after programming the device.
#AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY = -V

# Increase verbosity level.  Please use this when submitting bug
# reports about avrdude. See
<http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude>;
# to submit bug reports.
#AVRDUDE_VERBOSE = -v -v

AVRDUDE_FLAGS = -p $(MCU) -P $(AVRDUDE_PORT) -c $(AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_VERBOSE)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER)



#---------------- Debugging Options ----------------

# For simulavr only - target MCU frequency.
DEBUG_MFREQ = $(F_CPU)

# Set the DEBUG_UI to either gdb or insight.
# DEBUG_UI = gdb
DEBUG_UI = insight

# Set the debugging back-end to either avarice, simulavr.
DEBUG_BACKEND = avarice
#DEBUG_BACKEND = simulavr

# GDB Init Filename.
GDBINIT_FILE = __avr_gdbinit

# When using avarice settings for the JTAG
JTAG_DEV = /dev/com1

# Debugging port used to communicate between GDB  avarice  simulavr.
DEBUG_PORT = 4242

# Debugging host used to communicate between GDB  avarice  simulavr,
normally
#     just set to localhost unless doing some sort of crazy debugging
when
#     avarice is running on a different computer.
DEBUG_HOST = localhost



#======================================================================= 
=====


# Define programs and commands.
SHELL = sh
CC = avr-gcc
OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
SIZE = avr-size
NM = avr-nm
AVRDUDE = avrdude
REMOVE = rm -f
COPY = cp
WINSHELL = cmd


# Define Messages
# English
MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
MSG_END = --------  end  --------
MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before:
MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
MSG_COFF = Converting to AVR COFF:
MSG_EXTENDED_COFF = Converting to AVR Extended COFF:
MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
MSG_EEPROM = Creating load file for EEPROM:
MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
MSG_LINKING = Linking:
MSG_COMPILING = Compiling:
MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:




# Define all object files.
OBJ = $(SRC:.c=.o) $(ASRC:.S=.o)

# Define all listing files.
LST = $(SRC:.c=.lst) $(ASRC:.S=.lst)


# Compiler flags to generate dependency files.
GENDEPFLAGS = -MD -MP -MF .dep/$(@F).d


# Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
# Add target processor to flags.
ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)





# Default target.
all: begin gccversion sizebefore build sizeafter end

build: elf hex eep lss sym

elf: $(TARGET).elf
hex: $(TARGET).hex
eep: $(TARGET).eep
lss: $(TARGET).lss
sym: $(TARGET).sym



# Eye candy.
# AVR Studio 3.x does not check make's exit code but relies on
# the following magic strings to be generated by the compile job.
begin:
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_BEGIN)

end:
  @echo $(MSG_END)
  @echo


# Display size of file.
HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
ELFSIZE = $(SIZE) -A $(TARGET).elf
AVRMEM = avr-mem.sh $(TARGET).elf $(MCU)

sizebefore:
  @if test -f $(TARGET).elf; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE);
$(ELFSIZE); \
  $(AVRMEM) 2>/dev/null; echo; fi

sizeafter:
  @if test -f $(TARGET).elf; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER);
$(ELFSIZE); \
  $(AVRMEM) 2>/dev/null; echo; fi



# Display compiler version information.
gccversion :
  @$(CC) --version



# Program the device.
program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep
  $(AVRDUDE) $(AVRDUDE_FLAGS) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH)
$(AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM)


# Generate avr-gdb config/init file which does the following:
#     define the reset signal, load the target file, connect to target,
and set
#     a breakpoint at main().
gdb-config:
  @$(REMOVE) $(GDBINIT_FILE)
  @echo define reset >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
  @echo SIGNAL SIGHUP >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
  @echo end >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
  @echo file $(TARGET).elf >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
  @echo target remote $(DEBUG_HOST):$(DEBUG_PORT)  >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
ifeq ($(DEBUG_BACKEND),simulavr)
  @echo load  >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
endif
  @echo break main >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)

debug: gdb-config $(TARGET).elf
ifeq ($(DEBUG_BACKEND), avarice)
  @echo Starting AVaRICE - Press enter when "waiting to connect"
message displays.
  @$(WINSHELL) /c start avarice --jtag $(JTAG_DEV) --erase --program
--file \
  $(TARGET).elf $(DEBUG_HOST):$(DEBUG_PORT)
  @$(WINSHELL) /c pause

else
  @$(WINSHELL) /c start simulavr --gdbserver --device $(MCU)
--clock-freq \
  $(DEBUG_MFREQ) --port $(DEBUG_PORT)
endif
  @$(WINSHELL) /c start avr-$(DEBUG_UI) --command=$(GDBINIT_FILE)




# Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in AVR Studio
or VMLAB.
COFFCONVERT=$(OBJCOPY) --debugging \
--change-section-address .data-0x800000 \
--change-section-address .bss-0x800000 \
--change-section-address .noinit-0x800000 \
--change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000


coff: $(TARGET).elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
  $(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $< $(TARGET).cof


extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
  $(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $< $(TARGET).cof



# Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
%.hex: %.elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
  $(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@

%.eep: %.elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_EEPROM) $@
  -$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" \
  --change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@

# Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
%.lss: %.elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING) $@
  $(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@

# Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
%.sym: %.elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
  $(NM) -n $< > $@



# Link: create ELF output file from object files.
.SECONDARY : $(TARGET).elf
.PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
%.elf: $(OBJ)
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
  $(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $^ --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)


# Compile: create object files from C source files.
%.o : %.c
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
  $(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
%.s : %.c
  $(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
%.o : %.S
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
  $(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Create preprocessed source for use in sending a bug report.
%.i : %.c
  $(CC) -E -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Target: clean project.
clean: begin clean_list end

clean_list :
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).eep
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).cof
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
  $(REMOVE) $(OBJ)
  $(REMOVE) $(LST)
  $(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
  $(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
  $(REMOVE) .dep/*



# Include the dependency files.
-include $(shell mkdir .dep 2>/dev/null) $(wildcard .dep/*)


# Listing of phony targets.
.PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion \
build elf hex eep lss sym coff extcoff \
clean clean_list program debug gdb-config

-----------------------------------------------




Habe übrigens alle Dateien im c:\winavr Ordner.
#include <avr/io.h> habe ich angepasst.

Nils

Autor: Werner B. (Gast)
Datum:

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Hast Du c:\winavr\bin und c:\winavr\utils\bin in Deinen PATH
aufgenommen?

Autor: Nils Balmer (Gast)
Datum:

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hatte ich nicht, hat aber am ganzen nichts geändert.. :-(

..ABER, ich habe gemerkt, dass das main - File bei mir nur main und
nicht main.c hiess. War davon ausgegangen, dass Notepad das selber
übernimmt, denn angegeben dass ich ein C File schreiben will habe ich.

Danke für die Hilfe!!

Gruss, Nils

Autor: Werner B. (Gast)
Datum:

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Na ja, jedenfalls besser als Win...ooofs Notepad dass an JEDE Datei
ein .txt anhängt (ausser man zwingt es in jedem einzelnen fall mit
brutalen mitteln dies bleiben zu lassen) ;-)

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