Beispiel Makefile

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Allgemeines[Bearbeiten]

makefiles sind Steuerdateien für ein Programm, das "make" "/bin/make" oder make.exe heißt. Mit dem WinAVR kommt C:\WINAVR\utils\bin\make.exe

Um ein Makefile zu benutzen, muss man in dem Verzeichnis, in dem sich das makefile befindet, "make" aufrufen. Wenn man das von der DOS-Box aus tut, dann sieht man auch die Fehlerausgaben.

Beispiel 1[Bearbeiten]

Dies ist ein Beispiel-Makefile für Programmieranfänger:

  • AVR: Mega16
  • Programmer: Pony-Stk200
  • CPU-Frequenz: 1 Mhz
  • C-Datei: main.c

Hier gibt es das Beispiel-Makefile zum Herunterladen. (Anm. 30-08-2009: Datei und Listing sind unterschiedlich! Hier eine ähnliche, korrigierte Fassung.[Anm.: wegen den Optionen --combine und --fwhole-program eignet sich das "korrigierte" Makefile nicht, wenn das Programm aus mehr als einer Datei besteht. Ungenutzte Symbole in Modulen werden wegoptimiert, auch, wenn main sie benötigt.])

Bitte den Link benutzen, statt zu versuchen, das Makefile per copy&paste aus dem Text zu extrahieren!

Beim Copy&Paste können die wichtigen Tabulatoren verloren gehen und es kann dadurch diese Fehlermeldung geben: *** No rule to make target `main.elf', needed by `elf'

Edit: Der Copy&Paste Fehler trat nur auf, weil das Beispielmakefile fehlerhaft war.

# Hey Emacs, this is a -*- makefile -*-
#----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# WinAVR Makefile Template written by Eric B. Weddington, Jörg Wunsch, et al.
#
# Released to the Public Domain
#
# Additional material for this makefile was written by:
# Peter Fleury
# Tim Henigan
# Colin O'Flynn
# Reiner Patommel
# Markus Pfaff
# Sander Pool
# Frederik Rouleau
# Carlos Lamas
#
#----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# On command line:
#
# make all = Make software.
#
# make clean = Clean out built project files.
#
# make coff = Convert ELF to AVR COFF.
#
# make extcoff = Convert ELF to AVR Extended COFF.
#
# make program = Download the hex file to the device, using avrdude.
#                Please customize the avrdude settings below first!
#
# make debug = Start either simulavr or avarice as specified for debugging, 
#              with avr-gdb or avr-insight as the front end for debugging.
#
# make filename.s = Just compile filename.c into the assembler code only.
#
# make filename.i = Create a preprocessed source file for use in submitting
#                   bug reports to the GCC project.
#
# To rebuild project do "make clean" then "make all".
#----------------------------------------------------------------------------


# MCU name
MCU = atmega16


# Processor frequency.
#     This will define a symbol, F_CPU, in all source code files equal to the 
#     processor frequency. You can then use this symbol in your source code to 
#     calculate timings. Do NOT tack on a 'UL' at the end, this will be done
#     automatically to create a 32-bit value in your source code.
#     Typical values are:
F_CPU =  1000000
#         F_CPU =  1843200
#         F_CPU =  2000000
#         F_CPU =  3686400
#         F_CPU =  4000000
#         F_CPU =  7372800
#         F_CPU =  8000000
#         F_CPU = 11059200
#         F_CPU = 14745600
#         F_CPU = 16000000
#         F_CPU = 18432000
#         F_CPU = 20000000
#         F_CPU = 8000000


# Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
FORMAT = ihex


# Target file name (without extension).
TARGET = main


# Object files directory
OBJDIR = obj


# List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically generated.)
SRC = $(TARGET).c


# List C++ source files here. (C dependencies are automatically generated.)
CPPSRC = 


# List Assembler source files here.
#     Make them always end in a capital .S.  Files ending in a lowercase .s
#     will not be considered source files but generated files (assembler
#     output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
#     Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
#     it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and gcc itself does
#     care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.
ASRC =


# Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s]. 
#     0 = turn off optimization. s = optimize for size.
#     (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
OPT = s


# Debugging format.
#     Native formats for AVR-GCC's -g are dwarf-2 [default] or stabs.
#     AVR Studio 4.10 requires dwarf-2.
#     AVR [Extended] COFF format requires stabs, plus an avr-objcopy run.
DEBUG = dwarf-2


# List any extra directories to look for include files here.
#     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
#     Use forward slashes for directory separators.
#     For a directory that has spaces, enclose it in quotes.
EXTRAINCDIRS = 


# Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
#     c89   = "ANSI" C
#     gnu89 = c89 plus GCC extensions
#     c99   = ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
#     gnu99 = c99 plus GCC extensions
CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99


# Place -D or -U options here for C sources
CDEFS = -DF_CPU=$(F_CPU)UL


# Place -D or -U options here for C++ sources
CPPDEFS = -DF_CPU=$(F_CPU)UL
#CPPDEFS += -D__STDC_LIMIT_MACROS
#CPPDEFS += -D__STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS



#---------------- Compiler Options C ----------------
#  -g*:          generate debugging information
#  -O*:          optimization level
#  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
#  -Wall...:     warning level
#  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
CFLAGS = -g$(DEBUG)
CFLAGS += $(CDEFS)
CFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
#CFLAGS += -mint8
#CFLAGS += -mshort-calls
CFLAGS += -funsigned-char
CFLAGS += -funsigned-bitfields
CFLAGS += -fpack-struct
CFLAGS += -fshort-enums
#CFLAGS += -fno-unit-at-a-time
CFLAGS += -Wall
CFLAGS += -Wstrict-prototypes
CFLAGS += -Wundef
#CFLAGS += -Wunreachable-code
#CFLAGS += -Wsign-compare
CFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:%.c=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst)
CFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
CFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)


#---------------- Compiler Options C++ ----------------
#  -g*:          generate debugging information
#  -O*:          optimization level
#  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
#  -Wall...:     warning level
#  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
CPPFLAGS = -g$(DEBUG)
CPPFLAGS += $(CPPDEFS)
CPPFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
#CPPFLAGS += -mint8
#CPPFLAGS += -mshort-calls
CPPFLAGS += -funsigned-char
CPPFLAGS += -funsigned-bitfields
CPPFLAGS += -fpack-struct
CPPFLAGS += -fshort-enums
CPPFLAGS += -fno-exceptions
#CPPFLAGS += -fno-unit-at-a-time
CPPFLAGS += -Wall
#CPPFLAGS += -Wstrict-prototypes
CFLAGS += -Wundef
#CPPFLAGS += -Wunreachable-code
#CPPFLAGS += -Wsign-compare
CPPFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:%.cpp=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst)
CPPFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
#CPPFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)


#---------------- Assembler Options ----------------
#  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#  -ahlms:    create listing
#  -gstabs:   have the assembler create line number information; note that
#             for use in COFF files, additional information about filenames
#             and function names needs to be present in the assembler source
#             files -- see avr-libc docs [FIXME: not yet described there]
ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:%.S=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst),-gstabs 


#---------------- Library Options ----------------
# Minimalistic printf version
PRINTF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min

# Floating point printf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt

# If this is left blank, then it will use the Standard printf version.
PRINTF_LIB = 
#PRINTF_LIB = $(PRINTF_LIB_MIN)
#PRINTF_LIB = $(PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT)


# Minimalistic scanf version
SCANF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_min

# Floating point + %[ scanf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
SCANF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_flt

# If this is left blank, then it will use the Standard scanf version.
SCANF_LIB = 
#SCANF_LIB = $(SCANF_LIB_MIN)
#SCANF_LIB = $(SCANF_LIB_FLOAT)


MATH_LIB = -lm



#---------------- External Memory Options ----------------

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# used for variables (.data/.bss) and heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,-Tdata=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# only used for heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,--defsym=__heap_start=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

EXTMEMOPTS =



#---------------- Linker Options ----------------
#  -Wl,...:     tell GCC to pass this to linker.
#    -Map:      create map file
#    --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
LDFLAGS += $(EXTMEMOPTS)
LDFLAGS += $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)
#LDFLAGS += -T linker_script.x



#---------------- Programming Options (avrdude) ----------------

# Programming hardware: alf avr910 avrisp bascom bsd 
# dt006 pavr picoweb pony-stk200 sp12 stk200 stk500
#
# Type: avrdude -c ?
# to get a full listing.
#
AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = pony-stk200

# com1 = serial port. Use lpt1 to connect to parallel port.
AVRDUDE_PORT = lpt1

AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U flash:w:$(TARGET).hex
#AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM = -U eeprom:w:$(TARGET).eep


# Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
# Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
# see avrdude manual.
#AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER = -y

# Uncomment the following if you do /not/ wish a verification to be
# performed after programming the device.
#AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY = -V

# Increase verbosity level.  Please use this when submitting bug
# reports about avrdude. See <http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude> 
# to submit bug reports.
#AVRDUDE_VERBOSE = -v -v

AVRDUDE_FLAGS = -p $(MCU) -P $(AVRDUDE_PORT) -c $(AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_VERBOSE)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER)



#---------------- Debugging Options ----------------

# For simulavr only - target MCU frequency.
DEBUG_MFREQ = $(F_CPU)

# Set the DEBUG_UI to either gdb or insight.
DEBUG_UI = gdb
# DEBUG_UI = insight

# Set the debugging back-end to either avarice, simulavr.
#DEBUG_BACKEND = avarice
DEBUG_BACKEND = simulavr

# GDB Init Filename.
GDBINIT_FILE = __avr_gdbinit

# When using avarice settings for the JTAG
JTAG_DEV = /dev/com1

# Debugging port used to communicate between GDB / avarice / simulavr.
DEBUG_PORT = 4242

# Debugging host used to communicate between GDB / avarice / simulavr, normally
#     just set to localhost unless doing some sort of crazy debugging when 
#     avarice is running on a different computer.
DEBUG_HOST = localhost



#============================================================================


# Define programs and commands.
SHELL = sh
CC = avr-gcc
OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
SIZE = avr-size
NM = avr-nm
AVRDUDE = avrdude
REMOVE = rm -f
REMOVEDIR = rm -rf
COPY = cp
WINSHELL = cmd


# Define Messages
# English
MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
MSG_END = --------  end  --------
MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before: 
MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
MSG_COFF = Converting to AVR COFF:
MSG_EXTENDED_COFF = Converting to AVR Extended COFF:
MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
MSG_EEPROM = Creating load file for EEPROM:
MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
MSG_LINKING = Linking:
MSG_COMPILING = Compiling C:
MSG_COMPILING_CPP = Compiling C++:
MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:
MSG_CREATING_LIBRARY = Creating library:




# Define all object files.
OBJ = $(SRC:%.c=$(OBJDIR)/%.o) $(CPPSRC:%.cpp=$(OBJDIR)/%.o) $(ASRC:%.S=$(OBJDIR)/%.o) 

# Define all listing files.
LST = $(SRC:%.c=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst) $(CPPSRC:%.cpp=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst) $(ASRC:%.S=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst) 


# Compiler flags to generate dependency files.
GENDEPFLAGS = -MD -MP -MF .dep/$(@F).d


# Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
# Add target processor to flags.
ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
ALL_CPPFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x c++ $(CPPFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)





# Default target.
all: begin gccversion sizebefore build sizeafter end

# Change the build target to build a HEX file or a library.
build: elf hex eep lss sym
#build: lib


elf: $(TARGET).elf
hex: $(TARGET).hex
eep: $(TARGET).eep
lss: $(TARGET).lss
sym: $(TARGET).sym
LIBNAME=lib$(TARGET).a
lib: $(LIBNAME)



# Eye candy.
# AVR Studio 3.x does not check make's exit code but relies on
# the following magic strings to be generated by the compile job.

begin:
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_BEGIN)

end:
	@echo $(MSG_END)
	@echo


# Display size of file.
HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
ELFSIZE = $(SIZE) -A $(TARGET).elf
AVRMEM = avr-mem.sh $(TARGET).elf $(MCU)

sizebefore:
	@if test -f $(TARGET).elf; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE); $(ELFSIZE); \
	$(AVRMEM) 2>/dev/null; echo; fi

sizeafter:
	@if test -f $(TARGET).elf; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER); $(ELFSIZE); \
	$(AVRMEM) 2>/dev/null; echo; fi



# Display compiler version information.
gccversion : 
	@$(CC) --version



# Program the device.  
program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep
	$(AVRDUDE) $(AVRDUDE_FLAGS) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH)
	$(AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM)


# Generate avr-gdb config/init file which does the following:
#     define the reset signal, load the target file, connect to target, and set 
#     a breakpoint at main().
gdb-config: 
	@$(REMOVE) $(GDBINIT_FILE)
	@echo define reset >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
	@echo SIGNAL SIGHUP >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
	@echo end >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
	@echo file $(TARGET).elf >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
	@echo target remote $(DEBUG_HOST):$(DEBUG_PORT)  >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
	ifeq ($(DEBUG_BACKEND),simulavr)
	@echo load  >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
	endif
	@echo break main >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)

debug: gdb-config $(TARGET).elf
	ifeq ($(DEBUG_BACKEND), avarice)
	@echo Starting AVaRICE - Press enter when "waiting to connect" message displays.
	@$(WINSHELL) /c start avarice --jtag $(JTAG_DEV) --erase --program --file \
	$(TARGET).elf $(DEBUG_HOST):$(DEBUG_PORT)
	@$(WINSHELL) /c pause

	else
	@$(WINSHELL) /c start simulavr --gdbserver --device $(MCU) --clock-freq \
	$(DEBUG_MFREQ) --port $(DEBUG_PORT)
	endif
	@$(WINSHELL) /c start avr-$(DEBUG_UI) --command=$(GDBINIT_FILE)




# Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in AVR Studio or VMLAB.
	COFFCONVERT = $(OBJCOPY) --debugging
	COFFCONVERT += --change-section-address .data-0x800000
	COFFCONVERT += --change-section-address .bss-0x800000
	COFFCONVERT += --change-section-address .noinit-0x800000
	COFFCONVERT += --change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000



coff: $(TARGET).elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $< $(TARGET).cof


extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $< $(TARGET).cof



# Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
%.hex: %.elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
	$(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@

%.eep: %.elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_EEPROM) $@
	-$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" \
--change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@

# Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
%.lss: %.elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING) $@
	$(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@

# Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
%.sym: %.elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
	$(NM) -n $< > $@



# Create library from object files.
.SECONDARY : $(TARGET).a
.PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
%.a: $(OBJ)
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_CREATING_LIBRARY) $@
	$(AR) $@ $(OBJ)


# Link: create ELF output file from object files.
.SECONDARY : $(TARGET).elf
.PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
%.elf: $(OBJ)
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
	$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $^ --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)


# Compile: create object files from C source files.
$(OBJDIR)/%.o : %.c
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
	$(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Compile: create object files from C++ source files.
$(OBJDIR)/%.o : %.cpp
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_COMPILING_CPP) $<
	$(CC) -c $(ALL_CPPFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
%.s : %.c
	$(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Compile: create assembler files from C++ source files.
%.s : %.cpp
	$(CC) -S $(ALL_CPPFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
$(OBJDIR)/%.o : %.S
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
	$(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Create preprocessed source for use in sending a bug report.
%.i : %.c
	$(CC) -E -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Target: clean project.
clean: begin clean_list end

clean_list :
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).eep
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).cof
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
	$(REMOVEDIR) $(OBJDIR)
	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
	$(REMOVEDIR) .dep


# Create object files directory
$(shell mkdir $(OBJDIR) 2>/dev/null)


# Include the dependency files.
-include $(shell mkdir .dep 2>/dev/null) $(wildcard .dep/*)


# Listing of phony targets.
.PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion \
build elf hex eep lss sym coff extcoff \
clean clean_list program debug gdb-config

Beispiel 2[Bearbeiten]

Wenn man mehrere Projekte aus mehreren Mikroprozessoren ausprobieren will, muss man pro Projekt ein Unterverzeichnis und darin ein Makefile haben.

Wenn wegen neuer Erkenntnisse etwas am Kompilieren geändert werden soll, dann müssen alle diese makefiles angepasst werden. Das kann umgangen werden, wenn man "include" im Makefile benutzt.

Das hier vorgestellte Beispiel geht davon aus, dass im Windows-Rechner die Quellen der Unterprogramme, Hauptprogramme und Header so geordnet sind:

 C:\home\cc\include          - Alle Header
 C:\home\cc\lq               - Alle Unterprogramme
 C:\home\cc\ts               - Alle Hauptprogramme fixapfel.cpp tsadc.cpp 
 C:\home\cc\ts\avr\tsadc     - Der makefile und die astudio tsadc.apf-Datei 
                               und die pnproj-Datei
 C:\home\cc\ts\avr\fixapfel  - Der makefile und die astudio fixapfel.apf-Datei
 C:\home\cc\avrinc           - Da habe ich eine Kopie der Header von WinAVR
 c:\home\cc\avrbat           - makedefs

Die beiden Dateien benutze ich sowohl beim Kompilieren mit Windows und WinAVR als auch beim Kompilieren mit Linux. Dann muss ich nur die jeweils andere Zeile "HOME=" auskommentieren.

Die Datei C:\home\cc\ts\avr\tsadc\makefile[Bearbeiten]

PRG            = tsadc

# all objects required to link this project
OBJ			= $(PRG).o adc.o asctohw.o asctouc.o getticks.o inhex16.o \
	inline.o inuint8.o mul_uw_uw.o mul_sw_sw.o othex1.o othex2.o \
	othex4.o otint16.o otnl.o otputs.o otuint16.o otuint32.o otuint8.o \
	tsdaytim.o tshar.o tsser.o

NPRGPATH	=	3

include ../../../avrbat/makedefs

Die Datei C:\home\cc\avrbat\makedefs[Bearbeiten]

# Select here which processor

#MCU     = atmega8535
#F_CPU   = 16000000L
#BAUD    = 9600L

MCU     = atmega32
F_CPU	  = 1008136L	
BAUD    = 4800L 

# When using WINAVR
HOME=C:

# when using Linux
# HOME=/home/hjh

# Always in $(HOME)/home/cc/include are my headers
# Always in $(HOME)/home/cc/avrinc  are the avr-gcc headers
# Always in $(HOME)/home/cc/lq are my sources (.cpp and .s)

# Because I copied the headers from C:\winavr here, I use this path
# Then I do not need to adapt this part of the make file if I compile with Linux
# instead with Windows WinAVR
HJH_IDIR = -I $(HOME)/home/cc/include -I $(HOME)/home/cc/avrinc

# predefinitons:
# NPRGPATH : the amount of timesharing parallel functions, including 
#            the main loop in main()
# F_CPU    : The CPU frequency, may be long or float. The compiler converts 
#            it to the used type
# BAUD     : The baud rate, used in tsser.cpp
DEFS           = -DNPRGPATH=$(NPRGPATH) -DF_CPU=$(F_CPU) -DBAUD=$(BAUD)

CC             = avr-gcc

ASFLAGS 	= -g -mmcu=$(MCU) $(DEFS)
CFLAGS	= -g -mmcu=$(MCU) -Wall -Os -DAVR $(DEFS)
LDFLAGS	= -g -mmcu=$(MCU) -Wall -Wl,-Map,$(PRG).map -L $(HOME)home/cc/lq/avr/$(MCU) -l c


all: $(PRG).elf lst text
	echo  Makefile of $(PRG) all done


$(PRG).elf: $(OBJ)
	$(CC) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $^ $(LIBS)


clean:
	rm -rf *.o $(PRG).elf *.eps *.png *.pdf *.bak 
	rm -rf *.lst *.map *.tmp


lst:  $(PRG).lst

%.lst: %.elf
	avr-objdump -h -S $< > $@

# Rules for building the .text rom images

text: hex

hex:  $(PRG).hex

%.hex: %.elf
	avr-objcopy -j .text -j .data -O ihex $< $@

# Compile the main program
$(PRG).o : ../../$(PRG).cpp
	@echo compiling special input=$< output=$@
	$(CC) -S -c $(HJH_IDIR) $(CFLAGS) $< -o $@.tmp
	$(CC) -c $(HJH_IDIR) $(CFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Warning for Windows Users:
# For the %s, %S and %.cpp to work, all files in the ../../../lq directory 
# must have lower case file names (use total commander to do this)
#
# Compile one of the programs of the library
%.o : ../../../lq/%.s
	@echo compiling special input=$< output=$@
	$(CC) -c $(HJH_IDIR) $(ASFLAGS) $< -o $@

%.o : ../../../lq/%.S
	@echo compiling special input=$< output=$@
	$(CC) -c $(HJH_IDIR) $(ASFLAGS) $< -o $@

%.o : ../../../lq/%.cpp
	@echo compiling special input=$< output=$@
	$(CC) -c $(HJH_IDIR) $(CFLAGS) $< -o $@

Bibliothek erstellen[Bearbeiten]

Das folgende Beispiel basiert auf einer durch mfile (Jörg Wunsch) generierten Makefile. Das Makefile erstellt aus den angegebenen Targets Object-Dateien und packt diese in ein Archiv. Das Zielprojekt in dem die Bibliotheken eingebunden werden sollen basiert ebenfalls auf einer modifizierten Makefile von mfile.

Verzeichnisstruktur:

  • ./projekt, das Projekt
  • ./lib, für Bibliotheken
  • ./include, deren Header-Dateinen

Modifikationen für Bibliothek[Bearbeiten]

Nahezu alles überflüssige Auskommentiert, desweiteren folgende Änderungen...

...

TARGET = uart lcd keypad clock alarm
SRC = $(TARGET:%=%.c)

...

# LIBRARY
CF_CPU = -DF_CPU=8000000UL

# LIBDIRS =  -L"$(LIBRARY_DIR)/lib"
INCLUDES = -I"../include"

...

# CFLAGS = $(CDEBUG) $(CDEFS) $(CINCS) -O$(OPT) $(CWARN) $(CSTANDARD) $(CEXTRA)
CFLAGS = $(CDEBUG) $(CDEFS) $(CINCS) -O$(OPT) $(CWARN) $(CSTANDARD) $(CEXTRA) $(CF_CPU) $(INCLUDES)

...

#build: elf hex eep
build: $(OBJ) lib

...

lib : $(OBJ)
	$(AR) cr ./libWecker.a $(OBJ)

Modifikationen am Zielprojekt[Bearbeiten]

...

# ohne lib am Anfang oder .a als Anhang!
LIBDIRS =  -L"../lib"
LIB_WECKER =  -lWecker

INCLUDES = -I"../include"

...

# CFLAGS = $(CDEBUG) $(CDEFS) $(CINCS) -O$(OPT) $(CWARN) $(CSTANDARD) $(CEXTRA)
CFLAGS = $(CDEBUG) $(CDEFS) $(CINCS) -O$(OPT) $(CWARN) $(CSTANDARD) $(CEXTRA) \
$(CF_CPU) $(INCLUDES) $(LIBDIRS)

...

# LDFLAGS = $(EXTMEMOPTS) $(LDMAP) $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)
LDFLAGS = $(EXTMEMOPTS) $(LDMAP) $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB) $(LIB_WECKER)

Makefile[Bearbeiten]

# Hey Emacs, this is a -*- makefile -*-

# AVR-GCC Makefile template, derived from the WinAVR template (which
# is public domain), believed to be neutral to any flavor of "make"
# (GNU make, BSD make, SysV make)

# Modifikationen zum erstellen einer Bibliothek
# build: ... in build: $(OBJ) umbauen
# alles offensichtlich überflüssige auskommentiert
# CF_CPU dazu
# SRC = $(TARGET:%=%.c)
# INCLUDES
# Target lib:


MCU = atmega168
FORMAT = ihex
TARGET = uart lcd keypad clock alarm
SRC = $(TARGET:%=%.c)
ASRC =
OPT = s

# mut hs 21.04.2012
AR = avr-ar
#OBJ = \
#uart.o \
#lcd.o


# LIBRARY
CF_CPU = -DF_CPU=8000000UL

# LIBDIRS =  -L"$(LIBRARY_DIR)/lib"
INCLUDES = -I"../include"


# Name of this Makefile (used for "make depend").
MAKEFILE = Makefile

# Debugging format.
# Native formats for AVR-GCC's -g are stabs [default], or dwarf-2.
# AVR (extended) COFF requires stabs, plus an avr-objcopy run.
DEBUG = stabs

# Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
# c89   - "ANSI" C
# gnu89 - c89 plus GCC extensions
# c99   - ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
# gnu99 - c99 plus GCC extensions
CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99

# Place -D or -U options here
CDEFS =

# Place -I options here
CINCS =


CDEBUG = -g$(DEBUG)
CWARN = -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes
CTUNING = -funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct -fshort-enums
#CEXTRA = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.c=.lst)
CFLAGS = $(CDEBUG) $(CDEFS) $(CINCS) -O$(OPT) $(CWARN) $(CSTANDARD) $(CEXTRA) $(CF_CPU) $(INCLUDES)


#ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-gstabs 


#Additional libraries.

# Minimalistic printf version
PRINTF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min

# Floating point printf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt

PRINTF_LIB = 

# Minimalistic scanf version
SCANF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_min

# Floating point + %[ scanf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
SCANF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_flt

SCANF_LIB = 

MATH_LIB = -lm

# External memory options

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# used for variables (.data/.bss) and heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,--section-start,.data=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# only used for heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,--defsym=__heap_start=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

EXTMEMOPTS =

#LDMAP = $(LDFLAGS) -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
LDFLAGS = $(EXTMEMOPTS) $(LDMAP) $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)


# Programming support using avrdude. Settings and variables.

#AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = stk500v2
#AVRDUDE_PORT = usb

#AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U flash:w:$(TARGET).hex
#AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM = -U eeprom:w:$(TARGET).eep


# Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
# Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
# see avrdude manual.
#AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER = -y

# Uncomment the following if you do /not/ wish a verification to be
# performed after programming the device.
#AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY = -V

# Increase verbosity level.  Please use this when submitting bug
# reports about avrdude. See <http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude> 
# to submit bug reports.
#AVRDUDE_VERBOSE = -v -v

#AVRDUDE_BASIC = -p $(MCU) -P $(AVRDUDE_PORT) -c $(AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER)
#AVRDUDE_FLAGS = $(AVRDUDE_BASIC) $(AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY) $(AVRDUDE_VERBOSE) $(AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER)


CC = avr-gcc
OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
SIZE = avr-size
NM = avr-nm
AVRDUDE = avrdude
REMOVE = rm -f
MV = mv -f

# Define all object files.
OBJ = $(SRC:%.c=%.o) $(ASRC:%.S=%.o)

# Define all listing files.
#LST = $(ASRC:.S=.lst) $(SRC:.c=.lst)

# Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
# Add target processor to flags.
ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS)
ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)


# Default target.
all: build


#build: elf hex eep
build: $(OBJ) lib

#elf: $(TARGET).elf
#hex: $(TARGET).hex
#eep: $(TARGET).eep
#lss: $(TARGET).lss 
#sym: $(TARGET).sym


# Program the device.  
#program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep
#	$(AVRDUDE) $(AVRDUDE_FLAGS) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM)




# Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in AVR Studio or VMLAB.
#COFFCONVERT=$(OBJCOPY) --debugging \
#--change-section-address .data-0x800000 \
#--change-section-address .bss-0x800000 \
#--change-section-address .noinit-0x800000 \
#--change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000 


# coff: $(TARGET).elf
#	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $(TARGET).elf $(TARGET).cof


# extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
#	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $(TARGET).elf $(TARGET).cof


#.SUFFIXES: .elf .hex .eep .lss .sym

#.elf.hex:
#	$(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@

#.elf.eep:
#	-$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" \
#	--change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@

# Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
#.elf.lss:
#	$(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@

# Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
#.elf.sym:
#	$(NM) -n $< > $@



#Link: create ELF output file from object files.
#$(TARGET).elf: $(OBJ)
#	$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(OBJ) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)


# Compile: create object files from C source files.
.c.o:
	$(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@ 


# Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
#.c.s:
#	$(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
.S.o:
	$(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@



# Target: clean project.
clean:
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep $(TARGET).cof $(TARGET).elf \
	$(TARGET).map $(TARGET).sym $(TARGET).lss \
	$(OBJ) $(LST) $(SRC:.c=.s) $(SRC:.c=.d)

depend:
	if grep '^# DO NOT DELETE' $(MAKEFILE) >/dev/null; \
	then \
		sed -e '/^# DO NOT DELETE/,$$d' $(MAKEFILE) > \
			$(MAKEFILE).$$$$ && \
		$(MV) $(MAKEFILE).$$$$ $(MAKEFILE); \
	fi
	echo '# DO NOT DELETE THIS LINE -- make depend depends on it.' \
		>> $(MAKEFILE); \
	$(CC) -M -mmcu=$(MCU) $(CDEFS) $(CINCS) $(SRC) $(ASRC) >> $(MAKEFILE)

lib : $(OBJ)
	$(AR) cr ./libWecker.a $(OBJ)

.PHONY:	all build elf hex eep lss sym program coff extcoff clean depend

Siehe auch[Bearbeiten]

Weblinks[Bearbeiten]