Forum: Offtopic Bombardierung des Iraks durch die RAF - 1921!

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Autor: Anon (Gast)

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No one, least of all the British, should be surprised at the state of
anarchy in Iraq. We have been here before. We know the territory, its
long and miasmic history, the all-but-impossible diplomatic balance to
be struck between the cultures and ambitions of Arabs, Kurds, Shia and
Sunni, of Assyrians, Turks, Americans, French, Russians and of our own
desire to keep an economic and strategic presence there.  Laid waste, a
chaotic post-invasion Iraq may now well be policed by old and new
imperial masters promising liberty, democracy and unwanted exiled
leaders, in return for oil, trade and submission. Only the last of
these promises is certain. The peoples of Iraq, even those who have
cheered passing troops, have every reason to mistrust foreign invaders.
They have been lied
to far too often, bombed and slaughtered promiscuously.
 Iraq is the product of a lying empire. The British carved it
duplicitously from ancient history, thwarted Arab hopes, Ottoman loss,
the dunes of Mesopotamia and the mountains of Kurdistan at the end of
the first world war. Unsurprisingly, anarchy and insurrection were
there from the start.  The British responded with gas attacks by the
army in the south, bombing by the fledgling RAF in both north and
south. When Iraqi tribes stood up for themselves, we unleashed the
flying dogs of war to "police" them. Terror bombing, night bombing,
heavy bombers, delayed action bombs (particularly lethal against
children) were all developed during raids on mud, stone and
reed villages during Britain's League of Nations' mandate. The
mandate ended in 1932; the semi-colonial monarchy in 1958. But during
the period of direct British rule, Iraq proved a useful testing ground
for newly forged weapons of both limited and mass destruction, as well
as new techniques for controlling imperial outposts and vassal states.
The RAF was first ordered to Iraq to quell Arab and Kurdish and Arab
uprisings, to protect recently discovered oil reserves, to guard Jewish
settlers in Palestine and to keep Turkey at bay. Some mission, yet it
had already proved itself an effective imperial police force in both
and Somaliland (today's Somalia) in 1919-20. British and US forces
have been back regularly to bomb these hubs of recalcitrance ever
 Winston Churchill, secretary of state for war and air, estimated that
without the RAF, somewhere between 25,000 British and 80,000 Indian
troops would be needed to control Iraq. Reliance on the airforce
promised to cut these numbers to just 4,000 and 10,000. Churchill's
confidence was soon repaid.  An uprising of more than 100,000 armed
tribesmen against the British occupation swept through Iraq in the
summer of 1920. In went the RAF. It flew missions totalling 4,008
hours, dropped 97 tons of bombs and fired 183,861 rounds for the loss
of nine men killed, seven wounded and 11 aircraft destroyed behind
rebel lines. The rebellion was thwarted, with nearly 9,000 Iraqis
killed. Even so, concern was expressed in Westminster: the operation
had cost more than the entire British-funded Arab rising against the
Ottoman Empire in 1917-18.
 The RAF was vindicated as British military expenditure in Iraq fell
from £23m in 1921 to less than £4m five years later. This was despite
the fact that the number of bombing raids increased after 1923 when
Squadron Leader Arthur Harris - the future hammer of Hamburg and
Dresden, whose statue stands in Fleet Street in London today - took
command of 45 Squadron. Adding bomb-racks to Vickers Vernon troop car
riers, Harris more or less invented the heavy
bomber as well as night "terror" raids. Harris did not use gas
himself - though the RAF had employed mustard gas against Bolshevik
troops in 1919, while the army had gassed Iraqi rebels in 1920 "with
excellent moral effect".  Churchill was particularly keen on chemical
weapons, suggesting they be used "against recalcitrant Arabs as an
experiment". He dismissed objections as "unreasonable". "I am
strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes _
[to] spread a lively terror _" In today's terms, "the Arab" needed
to be shocked and awed. A good gassing might well do the job.
 Conventional raids, however, proved to be an effective deterrent. They
brought Sheikh Mahmoud, the most persistent of Kurdish rebels, to heel,
at little cost. Writing in 1921, Wing Commander J A Chamier suggested
that the best way to demoralise local people was to concentrate bombing
on the "most inaccessible village of the most prominent tribe which it
is desired to punish. All available aircraft must be collected the
attack with bombs and machine guns must be relentless and unremitting
and carried on continuously by day and night, on houses, inhabitants,
crops and cattle."  "The Arab and Kurd now know", reported Squadron
Leader Harris after several
such raids, "what real bombing means within 45 minutes a full-sized
village can be practically wiped out, and a third of its inhabitants
killed or injured, by four or five machines which offer them no real
target, no opportunity for glory as warriors, no effective means of
 In his memoir of the crushing of the 1920 Iraqi uprising,
Lieutenant-General Sir Aylmer L Haldane, quotes his own orders for the
punishment of any Iraqi found in possession of weapons "with the
utmost severity": "The village where he resides will be destroyed _
pressure will be brought on the inhabitants by cutting off water power
the area being cleared of the necessaries of life". He added the
warning: "Burning a village properly takes a long time, an hour
or more according to size".  Punitive British bombing continued
throughout the 1920s. An eyewitness account by Saleh 'Umar al Jabrim
describes a raid in February 1923 on a village in southern Iraq, where
bedouin were celebrating 12 weddings. After a visit from the RAF, a
woman, two boys, a girl and four camels were left dead.
There were many wounded. Perhaps to please his British interrogators,
Saleh declared: "These casualties are from God and no one is to be
 One RAF officer, Air Commodore Lionel Charlton, resigned in 1924 when
he visited a hospital after such a raid and faced armless and legless
civilian victims. Others held less generous views of those under their
control. "Woe betide any native [working for the RAF] who was caught
in the act of thieving any article of clothing that may be hanging out
to dry", wrote Aircraftsman 2nd class, H Howe, based at RAF Hunaidi,
Baghdad. "It was the practice to take the offending native into the
squadron gymnasium. Here he would be
placed in the boxing ring, used as a punch bag by members of the boxing
team, and after he had received severe punishment, and was in a very
sorry condition, he would be expelled for good, minus his job."  At
the time of the Arab revolt in Palestine in the late 1930s, Air
Commodore Harris, as he then was, declared that "the only thing the
Arab understands is the heavy hand, and sooner or later it will have to
be applied". As in 1921, so in 2003.

von http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWiraq.htm
"Iraq (Mesopotamia) is the land which lies between the rivers
Euphrates and Tigres in the Middle East. The area was devastated by the
Mongols in the 15th century and in 1638 became part of the Turkish
Ottoman Empire. During the First World War people from Iraq served with
the Turkish Army. In 1916, important figures such as Faisal ibn Ali and
Nuri es-Said changed sides and began working closely with T. E.
Lawrence. Faisal ibn Ali became the leading Arab military commander and
led the troops into Damascus on 3rd October 1918. After  the war the
country was occupied by the British Army. In 1920 the League of Nations
granted Britain a mandate to control the area. Britain provided Iraq
with a constitution and arranged for Faisal ibn Ali, the son of Sharif
Husain of Mecca, to become king of Iraq. Winston Churchill, Minister of
War and Air, estimated that around 25,000 British and 80,000 Indian
troops would be needed to control Iraq. However, he argued that if
Britain relied on air power, you could cut these numbers to 4,000
(British) and 10,000 (Indian). The government was convinced by this
argument and it was decided to send the recently formed Royal Air Force
to Iraq.
An uprising of more than 100,000 armed tribesmen took place in 1920.
Over the next few months the RAF dropped 97 tons of bombs killing 9,000
Iraqis. This failed to end the resistance and Arab and Kurdish uprisings
continued to pose a threat to British rule. Churchill suggested that
chemical weapons should be used "against recalcitrant Arabs as an
experiment." He added "I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas
against uncivilised tribes to spread a lively terror" in Iraq. In 1923
Squadron Leader Arthur Harris took command of 45 Squadron. He decided to
use gas attacks and delayed action bombs on the Iraqi tribes.  One RAF
officer, Air Commodore Lional Charlton, resigned in 1924 after visiting
a hospital that contained civilian victims of these air raids. However,
Harris disagreed and remarked "the only thing the Arab understands is
the heavy hand."

Autor: Anon (Gast)

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Um den Bezug zur Vergangenheit herzustellen darf natürlich die Milzbrand
nicht fehlen - und siehe da, wir finden sie auch in der Vergangenheit:
 "UK planned to wipe out Germany with anthrax
 Allies' World War Two shame
 Sunday Herald, London, 14th October 2001
 AS THE world recoils at the horrific possibility of al-Qaeda
terrorists waging anthrax war against United States citizens, the
Sunday Herald can reveal that Britain manufactured five million anthrax
cattle cakes during the Second World War and planned to drop them on
Germany in 1944.
 The aim of Operation Vegetarian was to wipe out the German beef and
dairy herds and then see the bacterium spread to the human population.
With people then having no access to antibiotics, this would have
caused many thousands-perhaps even millions-of German men, women and
children to suffer awful deaths.
 The anthrax cakes were tested on Gruinard Island, off Wester Ross,
which was finally cleared of contamination in 1990. Operation
Vegetarian was planned for the summer of 1944 but, in the event, it was
abandoned as the Allies' Normandy invasion progressed successfully.
 Details of the wartime secret operation are contained in a series of
War Office files (WO 188) at the Public Record Office in Kew. Some of
the files are still classified.
 The man whose task was to carry out Operation Vegetarian was Dr Paul
Fildes, director of the biology department at Porton Down near
Salisbury in Wiltshire. Fildes had previously been in charge of the
Medical Research Council's bacterial chemistry unit at Middlesex
 In early 1942, Fildes began searching Britain for suppliers and
manufacturers of linseed-oil cattle cake to make five million small
cakes. Large quantities of the bacillus itself had to be produced,
while special containers to carry the cattle cakes had to be designed
and made. Some RAF bombers had to be modified to deliver the
anthrax-infected payload. And all of it had to be done as cheaply as
 The raw material for the cake was provided by the Olympia Oil & Cake
Company in Blackburn. The contract to cut the cattle cake into small
pieces went to J & E Atkinson of Bond Street in London, perfumers and
toilet-soap manufacturers and suppliers to the royal family.
 The Atkinsons calculated that they could produce 180,000 to 250,000
cakes, each 2.5cm in diameter and 10 grammes in weight, in a 44-hour
week. The price was to be between 12 and 15 shillings per thousand.
 The firm pledged to deliver 5,273,400 cakes by April 1943. By the
middle of July 1942, the Atkinsons informed Fildes that 'we are now
producing at the rate of 40,000 per day'.
 The anthrax was manufactured by the Ministry of Agriculture and
Fisheries at its veterinary laboratory in Surrey. An Oxford academic
named Dr E Schuster was set to work devising the pump to inject the
bacilli into the cattle cakes. The Porton Down scientists settled on
cube-shaped cardboard containers, 18cm square, to carry the infected
 Each held 400 cakes. They would be fitted with a steel handle 'of a
size which enables the operator to grasp the handle without difficulty
when wearing thick leather or moleskin gloves . . . ' Thirteen women
were then recruited from various soap-making firms, sworn to secrecy
and given the job of injecting the cattle cakes with anthrax spores. At
the same time, Fildes and his team were working on the best way to
deliver the diseased cattle feed to the German herds.
 The RAF's research unit came up with a simple solution-easily made
wooden trays that fitted on to aircraft flare chutes. Their Bomber
Command Lancasters, Halifaxes and Stirlings were chosen for the job.
 By the beginning of 1944, Operation Vegetarian was ready to go. It was
crucial to mount any attack in the summer months.
 Fildes said: 'The cattle must be caught in the open grazing fields
when lush spring grass is on the wane.' 'Trials have shown that these
tablets . . . are found and consumed by the cattle in a very short time.
'Cattle are concentrated in the northern half of Oldenburg and
northwest Hanover. Aircraft flying to and from Berlin will fly over 60
miles of grazing land.'
 Fildes calculated that, at an average ground speed of 300mph, the
distance would be covered in 18 minutes. 'If one box of tablets is
dispersed every two minutes, then each aircraft will be required to
carry and disperse nine, or say 10, boxes.'
 One Lancaster bomber returning from a raid on Berlin would be able to
scatter 4000 anthrax-infected cakes over a 60-mile swathe in less than
20 minutes. A dozen aircraft would have been enough to litter most of
the north German countryside with anthrax spores. Operation Vegetarian
was a seriously deadly project.
 But, by the time Fildes's operation was ready to go in the summer of
1944, the Normandy invasion had taken place and Allied armies were
crashing through northern France and up through Italy. The war against
Nazi Germany was instead being won by conventional means. At the end of
1945, five million anthrax-infected cattle cakes were incinerated in one
of Porton Down's furnaces."

Autor: Rufus Τ. Firefly (rufus) (Moderator) Benutzerseite

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Und, was will uns damit gesagt werden?

Autor: Anon (Gast)

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Daß sich bestimmte Sachen sich einfach nicht ändern, z.B.
Ansonsten sei es als reine Information über etwas gedacht was nicht
jeder weiß :-) Und Aufklärung ist doch ein heheres Ziel, dem sich sogar
ein ganzer Berufsstand gewidmet hat!

Autor: Gast (Gast)

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So so, na und?

Autor: Heinz Schenk (Gast)

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Bei so langen Posts werde ich einfach müde, wie bei den
Steuererklärungen auch.

Gebt es mir in kleinen Portionen bitte.


Autor: Anon (Gast)

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Ich habe doch gehofft in solch einem quasiwissenschaftlichen Forum wäre
die Aufnahmefähigkeit größer als bei den durchschnittlichen Zuhörer von
"Sabine Christiansen" oder "Richterin Barbara Salesch"!

Autor: Anon (Gast)

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Also gut, eine Kurzzusammenfassung:
 * die britische RAF bombardierte den Irak schon 1921, übrigens auch
damals mit einem "Völkerbundsmandat"
 * Man erfand damals schon das Instrumentarium von schweren Bombern,
Terrorbombardierungen (pausenlos + konzentriert), Nachtbombardierungen,
Bomben mit Verzögerungszündern, Vorläufern von Napalm etc.
 * Ungehorsame Iraker wurden damals für die Boxer zum Üben als
Punching-Sack verwendet.
 * Die britische Armee war verzückt über den Terror, den sie mit dem
Einsatz von Giftgas erzielte.
 * Hauptakteure waren schon damals die Menschenfreunde "Sir" Winston
Churchill und "Butcher" Arthur Harris, welche so für Dresden, Hamburg
und Berlin üben konnten.

Gerade Churchill war begeistert über die Kosteneffizienz dieser

Autor: Roland (Gast)

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Danke für die gute Zusammenfassung, ich wusste es z.B. noch nicht..

Autor: Anon (Gast)

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Der zweite Teil beschäftigt sich mit der "Operation Vegetarier" - dem
geplanten Einsatz biologischer Waffen (Anthrax/Milzbrand) durch die
RAF. Es war schon alles fertig, nur waren dann die eigenen Truppen
schon zu weit in Deutschland. Auch die Amerikaner mußten dann ihre
Atombomben woanders ausprobieren - gottseidank hatte Japan ja noch
nicht kapituliert....

Autor: Anon (Gast)

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"Operation Vegetarier - Großbritannien plante Deutschland mit Anthrax
auszulöschen. Unsere Schande des 2. Weltkriegs."
Übersetzung des Anfangs: "Als sich die Welt bei dem Gedanken an die
Anthrax-Anschläge in den USA überschlägt enthüllte die Zeitung "Sunday
Herald" daß Großbritannien 5 Millionen Stück anthraxverseuchtes
Kuhfutter (übersetzt "Kuhkuchen") während des 2. Weltkrieges
hergestellt hatte und diese über Deutschland einsetzen wollte.
Das Ziel der Operation war es, die deutschen Milch- und Fleischkühe
auszulöschen und danach zuzusehen wie sich die Seuche zwangsläufig auf
die Menschen überträgt. Ohne verfügbare Antibiotika hätte dies
tausende, wenn nicht gar Millionen von Opfern erfordert, welche einen
grausamen Tod erlitten hätten.
Die Anthrax-Kuchen wurden auf der später dafür berüchtigten
Gruinard-Insel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gruinard_island) getestet,
welche erst 1990 für als wieder begehbar galt.

Autor: Heinz Schenk (Gast)

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HeinzSchenk trinkt Äppler in großen Mengen.

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